In just about any introductory textbook on astronomy or primer on cosmology, you are bound to study that the Universe is expanding (accurate sufficient) since space itself is expanding, and like dots painted on a balloon becoming blown up, the flotsam and jetsam of the Universe is spreading apart, somehow ‘glued’ to that expanding space. How any astronomer or cosmologist can create such claptrap with a straight face is rather beyond me.
My standard premise right here is that if space itself is expanding, then space itself is a point. Popular sense tells you that space is not a point. You can’t see it, hear it, touch it, really feel it or taste it. If you consider space is a point, effectively grab hold of some of it and attempt to stretch or expand it (but do it in private or other individuals will doubt your sanity). Regardless of whether you speak about three-D space (volume) or the 4 dimensional space-time (time becoming the fourth dimension), it is just the empty stage, IMHO, exactly where the drama of genuine issues is played out.
To my way of considering, not-issues (like space, time and dimensions* in basic) can be subdivided indefinitely. They are continuous. No matter the length, region or volume, what ever you have can be divided in half and in half once again and once again and once again and you nevertheless have a length, region or volume. Items have a constructed-in limit as to how far that point in query can be divided down ahead of you hit basic bedrock. Sooner or later you hit and enter the realm of the electron, these quarks, neutrinos, photons, gluons, gravitons and other force and matter particles that can’t be divided down any farther. These are issues.
So if space itself is expanding, effectively that is nonsense since…
There is space amongst your ears, but that does not imply you are having a swelled head!
You move by means of current space when going from residence to the workplace, to the supermarket or going to a foreign city on enterprise or trip. When commuting to the workplace, the distance amongst residence and workplace does not improve on a each day basis.
The Moon orbits the Earth by means of current space. The Moon is having farther away of the Earth on a each day basis. Even there is a lot of space amongst the Earth and the Moon, and the Moon is having additional away from the Earth, that is not since space is expanding, but since of tidal forces.
The Earth/Moon pair orbits the Sun by means of current space. There is a lot of interplanetary space amongst the Earth/Moon technique and the Sun, but the Earth/Moon to Sun distance hasn’t changed in thousands of millennia.
The Sun (and solar technique) orbits about the center of the Milky Way Galaxy although current space. There is a lot of interstellar space amongst the Sun and the galactic center but the Sun is not having any extra distant from that center.
So far, so fantastic: even astronomers and cosmologists will agree with that assessment. But all of a sudden, with a snap of their fingers, as soon as out in intergalactic space issues move apart, or rather galaxies (of which our Milky Way is a single of billions and billions) move apart from other galaxies as if becoming carried piggyback on an expanding intergalactic space (which even so is the similar space as interplanetary and interstellar space).
Truly there is an exception of each galaxy moving away from each other galaxy – clusters of galaxies that are cheek-by-jowl are bound with each other by their mutual gravity, and sometime in such a cluster galaxies can strategy every single other. A case in point has our personal Milky Way Galaxy, and the Andromeda Galaxy on a collision course, but rest straightforward, the intersection will not take place for yet another 5 billion years – give or take a million.
But wait, is not each galaxy in the observable universe bound or attracted by gravity to each other galaxy? I imply the force of gravity does not extend outwards and then at some point fall off a cliff, or get shut down and off.
If space is expanding, then space is a point with properties. What are the properties of a point that expands?
Most popular are two-D structures. You place added air in your tires, it is the rubber that expands when blowing up a balloon, effectively it is that membrane-like surface that stretches you have stretching fabrics (like the elastic in your underwear). The oft applied cosmology textbook analogy is painting dots (representing the galaxies) on the surface of an expanding balloon (representing expanding space), and as the balloon expands the ‘galactic’ dots get additional apart. But the analogy fails since the balloon’s expanding surface is a a thing. In addition to, all two-D analogies are not worth the paper they are written on considering that 1) the actual Universe is three-D and two) there are three-D analogies readily available.
So there are quite popular three-D analogies. An complete rock will expand, not just the surface, sitting out in the hot sun a increasing cake or soufflé or baking raisin bread are popular examples in the kitchen. The analogy oft offered is that of baking raisin bread, exactly where the raisins are the galaxies and the expanding bread is akin to space, and as a result the ‘galactic’ raisins get additional and additional apart as the bread expands. But this analogy fails as well since the raisin bread is a a thing.
Now when a thing expands, it gets thinner or extra dilute. As you maintain placing on weight, the elastic in your underwear stretches thinner and thinner. In the case of the raisin loaf, if you start off with a 500 gram mass of dough in a container of say 300 cubic centimeters, what you finish up with is 500 grams in say a volume of 500 cubic centimeters. The similar quantity of stuff, in a bigger volume, suggests that the stuff has been diluted.
If space is a a thing, and space itself is expanding or stretching, then space ought to be having thinner and/or extra dilute more than time. If even so, this space-as-a-a thing remains continual more than time, even although it is expanding, then you are having a no cost lunch – a thing from practically nothing. That added space is becoming manufactured by forces unknown out of practically nothing at all. Claptrap!
Any person who is any individual who knows a bit about gravity and Common Relativity knows that space-time is versatile. Mass ‘tells’ space-time how to flex how space-time flexes ‘tells’ mass how to move. Nevertheless, that also implies that space-time is a point, a physical medium that can be manipulated.
Matter and power and related forces and force particles are two sides of the similar coin as connected by Einstein’s popular equation. So, that need to be enough for any and all actions, reactions, interactions, and so on. to be explainable with no resorting to warped space-time. Nevertheless, let’s appear at the most effectively recognized illustration of alleged warped space-time, the experimental observation that proved Einstein’s prediction that Mass certainly ‘tells’ space-time how to flex and how space-time flexes ‘tells’ mass how to move. The case in point was the deflection of photons of light emitted by a star whose light passed quite close to our Sun. That deflection meant that observers on Earth saw the star ever so slightly out of position when the Sun was in the line-of-sight vicinity. (All this was observed throughout a solar eclipse otherwise the starlight would have been drowned out by the Sun’s light.) The explanation: starlight photons (mass or power) want to go straight but space-time was warped and as a result these photons got deflected from the straight and narrow. Effectively, that is a single way of searching at it.
On the other hand, the starlight’s light-wave photons are issues the Sun is a point the Sun’s gravity is a point. So objects, matter and power, issues current in space and time that pass inside the Sun’s gravity, need to be impacted, in this case deflected from their straight and narrow path. Why invoke warped space-time? It may well be a good way of searching at issues, but airbrushing is not confined to just the style business!
Roll an iron ball previous a magnet and you are going to get a deflection from the straight and narrow – like with the photon and the Sun. But roll a marble previous the similar magnet and the marble will continue on straight and accurate. So, the trajectory of the iron ball or the marble vs. the magnet (element of the electromagnetic force) has practically nothing to do with warped space-time, although the action took location in space-time.
Take your standard trilogy of quarks (in a neutron or proton) who like every single other so dearly that they can not stand to be apart. If you force them apart, the powerful nuclear force which commonly keeps the quarks cheek-by-jowl will just get stronger the farther apart you pull the trio of quarks apart – like a rubber band becoming stretched. When you release your hold on this threesome, they snap back with each other. Their path deviates back from what you dictated – practically nothing to do with warped space-time although the action took location in space-time.
Or take the decay of an unstable atomic nucleus. The castoff particles hit other unstable nuclei cascading off extra bits and pieces which hit extra unstable nuclei on the brink, and so on. You get a chain reaction, even maybe a nuclear blast. That is the weak nuclear force in action. Once again, that is not dependent on warped space-time although the chain reaction requires location in space-time.
But let’s back to the warping of space-time which appears allegedly to be the providence of gravity and just gravity.
But what sort of flexing, or space-time warping could account for most (not all) galaxies operating away from most (not all) other galaxies – actual observations of the expanding Universe. None that is apparent and leaps to thoughts other than a sort of infinite Mexican sombrero variety structure exactly where all huge clumps of matter (most galaxies) start off off at the major of the hat and roll off, to the north, south, east and west, and all points of the compass in-amongst, down to the – effectively the ‘down’ does not finish. But somehow you have to image that in three-D considering that the surface of the ‘sombrero’, exactly where all the action is, is two-D.
As soon as you accept the notion that the notion of space itself is expanding – space itself developing extra space out of practically nothing – is total nonsense, then particular consequences comply with. A single is that the stuff of the Universe is expanding by means of current space rather than the stuff of the Universe becoming carried piggyback on the back of space. If the stuff of the Universe is expanding by means of current space, the stuff of the Universe has often expanded by means of current space. Current space was present all through the Universe’s expansion proper back unto the starting – that Huge Bang occasion. If space existed at the time of the Huge Bang occasion then space existed ahead of the Huge Bang occasion, as the Huge Bang occasion necessary space to bang into, just like any other explosive occasion you can consider of, from a firecracker to an H-Bomb to a supernova has to take place in current space. For that reason there was an existence ahead of the Huge Bang. There was a ahead of the Huge Bang and what ever cosmology accounts for the Huge Bang demands to take that into account.
IS THERE AN OBSERVATIONAL TEST?
Is there any actual observational proof that proves conclusively that it is space expanding and not flotsam and jetsam moving apart by means of current space? No. But I can consider of a doable test or two that may well conclude the problem. If space is expanding then objects that are approaching every single other (like the Milky Way Galaxy and the Andromeda Galaxy) due to mutual gravity or since of intrinsic motion, need to be fighting against the grain and be approaching every single other extra gradually than would otherwise be the case. Or, on the other hand, two objects receding apart, like the Earth and the Moon (due to tidal forces) are going with the grain and need to be separating extra swiftly than otherwise would be the case. I’ve but to study any account of this sort of measurement and observational confirmation which would only arise if the velocities of the Milky Way/Andromeda pair or Earth/Moon pair had been certainly anomalous. The latter experiment, the escalating Earth/Moon separation need to be a somewhat straightforward experiment to do. Due to the reflective mirrors lent on the lunar surface by the Apollo moonwalkers we know the Earth-Moon distance to intense precision. It need to be simple no matter if the Moon is receding from the Earth more rapidly than tidal forces can account for.
There is a quite strong principle in science recognized as Occam’s Razor, which quite a great deal states than when faced with a pot-complete of competing suggestions or explanations, bet the household farm on the a single which tends to make the least assumptions and appears the most simple. In other words, “maintain it uncomplicated, stupid!” Applying Occam’s Razor, there is a quite straightforward and commonsense answer to this claptrap. All objects at any scale move by means of current space. Space just is – it includes issues from the power of the (not so fantastic) vacuum, to interplanetary/interstellar/intergalactic gas and dust, to solar systems, to quasars, to the biggest of galactic clusters. For that reason, if now, then way back when. The origin of the Universe also took location in current space. The Huge Bang occasion did not generate space for space is not a tangible point that can be produced. Additional, there is no astronomical, observable test (apart from the possibilities I recommended above and variations on these themes) that can distinguish amongst expanding space, and matter expanding by means of space.